On 1 January 2019, the population of the European Union (EU)was estimated at almost 513.5 million, compared with 512.4 million on 1 January 2018. During 2018, more deaths than births were recorded in the EU (5.3 million deaths and 5.0 million births), meaning that the natural change of the EU population was negative for a second consecutive year. The population change (positive, with 1.1 million more inhabitants) was therefore due to net migration.
With 83.0 million residents (or 16.2% of the total EU population at 1 January 2019), Germany isthe most populated EU Member State, ahead of France (67.0 million, or 13.1%), the United Kingdom (66.6 million, or 13.0%), Italy (60.4 million, or 11.8%), Spain (46.9 million, or 9.1%) and Poland (38.0 million, or 7.4%). For the remaining Member States, fourteen have a share of between 1% and 4% of the EU population and eight a share below 1%.
These figures are issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, just before the World Population Day (11 July).
Population increase in eighteen Member States
During 2018, the population increased in eighteen EU Member States and decreased in ten. The largest population increase was observed in Malta (+36.8 per 1 000 residents), ahead of Luxembourg (+19.6‰), Ireland (+15.2‰), Cyprus (+13.4‰), Sweden (+10.8‰), Slovenia (+6.8‰), Belgium (+6.1‰), Spain and the Netherlands (both +5.9‰) and the United Kingdom (+5.6‰).
In contrast, the largest population decrease was recorded in Latvia (-7.5‰), followed by Bulgaria and Croatia (both -7.1‰), Romania (-6.6‰) and Lithuania (-5.3‰).
The population of the entire EU increased by 1.1 million people (+2.1‰) during 2018.
Highest birth rate in Ireland, lowest in Italy
During the year 2018, 5.0 million babies were born in the EU, almost 118 000 fewer than the previous year. Across Member States, the highest crude birth rates in 2018 were recorded in Ireland (12.5 per 1 000 residents), Sweden (11.4‰), France (11.3‰) and the United Kingdom (11.0‰), while the lowest were registered in Italy (7.3‰), Spain (7.9‰), Greece (8.1‰), Portugal (8.5‰), Finland (8.6‰), Bulgaria (8.9‰) and Croatia (9.0‰). At EU level, the crude birth rate was 9.7 per 1 000 residents.
In the meantime, 5.3 million deaths were registered in the EU in 2018, almost 46 000 more than the previous year. Ireland (6.4 per 1 000 residents), Cyprus (6.6‰) and Luxembourg (7.1‰) had in 2018 the lowest crude death rates, followed by Malta (7.6‰), the Netherlands (8.9‰), Spain and Sweden (both 9.1‰). At the opposite end of the scale, Bulgaria (15.4‰), Latvia (15.0‰), Lithuania (14.1‰), Romania (13.5‰) and Hungary (13.4‰) recorded the highest. For the EU as a whole, thecrudedeath rate was 10.4 per 1 000 residents.
Ireland (with a natural change of
its population of +6.1‰)
remained in 2018 the Member State where births most outnumbered deaths, ahead
of Cyprus (+4.1‰), Luxembourg (+3.2‰), Sweden (+2.3‰), France (+2.2‰), the United
Kingdom (+1.7‰) and Malta (+1.6‰).
In contrast, among the fifteen EU Member States which registered a negative
natural change in 2018, deaths outnumbered births the most in Bulgaria
(-6.6‰), followed by Latvia (-4.9‰), Lithuania (-4.1‰), Croatia, Hungary and Romania (all -3.9‰).