The euro area (EA19) seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 8.1% in October 2018, stable compared with September 2018 and down from 8.8% in October 2017. This remains the lowest rate recorded in the euro area since November 2008. The EU28 unemployment rate was 6.7% in October 2018, stable compared with September 2018 and down from 7.4% in October 2017. This remains the lowest rate recorded in the EU28 since the start of the EU monthly unemployment series in January 2000. These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
Eurostat estimates that 16.626 million men and women in the EU28, of whom 13.172 million in the euro area, were unemployed in October 2018. Compared with September 2018, the number of persons unemployed decreased by 4 000 in the EU28 and increased by 12 000 in the euro area. Compared with October 2017, unemployment fell by 1.523 million in the EU28 and by 1.121 million in the euro area.
Among the Member States, the lowest unemployment rates in October 2018 were recorded in Czechia (2.2%) and Germany (3.3%). The highest unemployment rates were observed in Greece (18.9% in August 2018) and Spain (14.8%).
Compared with a year ago, the unemployment rate fell in all Member States. The largest decreases were registered in Croatia (from 10.2% to 8.1%), Greece (from 20.8% to 18.9% between August 2017 and August 2018) Spain (from 16.6% to 14.8%) and Portugal (from 8.4% to 6.7%).
In October 2018, the unemployment rate in the United States was 3.7%, stable compared with August 2018 and down from 4.1% in October 2017.
In October 2018, 3.468 million young persons (under 25) were unemployed in the EU28, of whom 2.503 million were in the euro area. Compared with October 2017, youth unemployment decreased by 215 000 in the EU28 and by 78 000 in the euro area. In October 2018, the youth unemployment rate was 15.3% in the EU28 and 17.3% in the euro area, compared with 16.3% and 18.1% respectively in October 2017. In October 2018, the lowest rates were observed in Czechia (5.2%), Germany (6.2%) and the Netherlands (7.2%), while the highest were recorded in Greece (36.8% in August 2018), Spain (34.9%) and Italy (32.5%).
The euro area (EA19) includes Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland.
The European Union (EU28) includes Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Methods and definitions
Eurostat produces harmonised unemployment rates for individual EU Member States, the euro area and the EU. These unemployment rates are based on the definition recommended by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The measurement is based on a harmonised source, the European Union Labour Force Survey (LFS).
Based on the ILO definition, Eurostat defines unemployed persons as persons aged 15 to 74 who:
– are without work;
– are available to start work within the next two weeks;
– and have actively sought employment at some time during the previous four weeks.
The unemployment rate is the number of people unemployed as a percentage of the labour force.
The labour force is the total number of people employed plus unemployed. In this news release unemployment rates are based on employment and unemployment data covering persons aged 15 to 74.
The youth unemployment rate is the number of people aged 15 to 24 unemployed as a percentage of the labour force of the same age. Therefore, the youth unemployment rate should not be interpreted as the share of jobless people in the overall youth population.
When data for the most recent month are not available for a Member State, EU and EA aggregates are calculated using the latest data available for that Member State.
Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Sweden and Iceland: the trend component is used instead of the more volatile seasonally adjusted data.
Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Norway: 3-month moving averages of LFS data are used instead of pure monthly indicators.
Revisions and timetable
The data in this News Release can be subject to revisions, caused by updates to the seasonally adjusted series whenever new monthly data are added; the inclusion of the most recent LFS data in the calculation process; update of seasonal adjustment models with complete annual data.
Compared with the rates published in News Release 170/2018 of 31 October 2018, the September 2018 unemployment rate for EA19 and the EU28 remained unchanged. Among Member States, the rate has been revised by more than 0.1 percentage points (pp) downwards for France and Latvia (both by 0.3 pp) as well as for Romania and Sweden (both by 0.2 pp). The unemployment rate has been revised by more than 0.1 percentage points (pp) upwards for Cyprus (by 1.0 pp), Lithuania and Poland (both by 0.4 pp) as well as for Italy (by 0.2 pp).
Source: Eurostat Press Office