In 2016, regional GDP per capita, expressed in terms of purchasing power standards, ranged from 29% of the European Union (EU) average in the Bulgarian region of Severozapaden, to 611% of the average in Inner London – West in the United Kingdom.
The leading regions in the ranking of regional GDP per capita in 2016, after Inner London – West in the United Kingdom (611% of the average), were the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (257%), Southern & Eastern in Ireland (217%), Bruxelles/Brussel in Belgium and Hamburg in Germany (both at 200%). There were 19 regions with GDP per capita 50% or more above the EU average in 2016: five were in Germany, three in the United Kingdom, two in Austria, one each in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Sweden, as well as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
After Severozapaden in Bulgaria (29% of the average), the lowest regions in the ranking were Mayotte in France (33%), Severen tsentralen and Yuzhen tsentralen in Bulgaria (both 34%) and Nord-Est in Romania (36%). Among the 21 regions with GDP per capita below 50% of the EU average, five were in Bulgaria and Poland, four in Hungary, three in Romania and Greece and one in France.
It should be noted, however, that in some regions the GDP per capita figures can be significantly influenced by commuter flows. Net commuter inflows in these regions push up production to a level that could not be achieved by the resident active population on its own. There is a corresponding effect in regions with commuter outflows.